A planet, population 6 million, all living around the equator, presumably because it was the only habitable region of the planet. Temperature at the poles was stated to be approaching absolute zero (but see under BIRDS), which gives a temperature gradient of something in the region of 250-300K if the equator offered a breathable atmosphere and tolerable temperatures. Since Kerr Avon and Del Grant visited one of the ice caps and found a breathable atmosphere, the reference to absolute zero might not mean 0K as such, but be a colloquialism for a region too cold to inhabit. The teleport distance from the Federation bunker to the device's location was said to be 4,000 miles, suggesting the planet was approximately Earth-size or smaller (Earth has a polar radius of about 4,000 miles, and a surface journey from equator to pole would be about 6,200 miles). Blake noted that the nearest planet was 500 space hours away.
Albian was colonised in the last century of the Old Calendar. The colonists resisted joining the Federation for a long time. The Albians suffered what Cauder called "impossible demands on our economy", and when the planet tried to secede legally a state of emergency was declared and the planet placed under martial law. At the time of Blake's visit it was garrisoned by less than 100 troops of the Federation's Space Assault Force under Space Major Provine, who described Albian as "important to the Federation". Resistance was kept in check by a solium radiation device on one of the polar caps.
Britain was referred to as Albion by the Greeks in the 4th Century BC, after the Albiones who lived there. It was also known as Albany. The term later applied more specifically to Scotland, under the name of Albin. (B: Countdown)